On the way to the response machine

"Alpha" is a milestone in information technology or why mathematical approaches are superior: a conversation with the physicist klaus holthausen

Stephen wolfram has with the envision of wolfram alpha (cf. Software genius does not promise any google killer) at least astonishment caused: alpha should not generate answers from a keyword search in content, but calculate them mathematically. The german physicist klaus holthausen tries with his project qimaya, computers in other ways to teach the understanding of network content. In the interview, he greeted why mathematical approaches are considered the previous attempts to help the semantic web through a tribute and parallel tagging to breakthrough.

Since stephen wolfram has announced his anpha answering machine in his blog, at least in the media was often talked about a google killer. For how significant, keep the envision? Klaus holthausen: I expect a significant milestone in information technology. It is not about whether the new response machine is something in principle new. I see an analogy to develop hardware: the step of transistor to the integrated circuit did not bring anything in principle. But he revolutionized our world. If stephen wolfram succeeded in tensioning algorithms into a framework that they work like a cellular machine, then it would be a very significant step. Which problems will be alpha loans, the google CO. Not solve? Klaus holthausen: google is passive and slow. Many know the so-called "google dance", a periodic fluctuation of the pagerank, which is concluded by expensive update procedures. Wolfram alpha calculates answers dynamically. Dynamic user interaction is a central theme of a patent of stephen wolfram, which was published in october last year. Alpha can react faster to a dramatic event – such as an amooker -. Alpha has not been reproduced several times the same DPA message, but as a dynamic and intelligent wikipedia immediately aggregate background knowledge.

We let us lead too much of metaphors from the world of libraries

the vision, the web soon not only consist of strings, but consist of importance, has spun tim berners-lee already eleven years ago. Why is not it as far as possible? Klaus holthausen: because we are too far from metaphors from the world of libraries. Google’s pagerank was the science citation index pate – a method from the time of the electric typewriter. Tags, RDF and co are all only brother and sisters of the librarian’s note box – invented before about 1000 years when monche documented a static world. Schopenhauer was saying: everyone looks at the boundaries of his own vision as the boundaries in the world. In front of which problems is the semantic web with the previous approach to upgrading content through tags with importance? Klaus holthausen: knowledge is interpreted information. The best metaphor for the knowledge would be a hologram. The neurosciences indicate that we owe our associative thinking and our memory services processes that have the holographic character. One day, however, reduces an N-dimensional events to just one dimension.

Zerllular machines

what do you think of wolfram’s approach to get answers instead with the help of cellular vending machines – and what can I imagine at all? Klaus holthausen: cellular vending machines are very simple crosslinked switching elements that produce complex behavior based on simple rules. I do not think that wolfram alpha is a cellular machine in the to-word word. Rather, I ame that the principle of the cellular vending machine – and thus the bottom-up approach of the KI – has transferred to an ensemble of algorithms and programs. For example, there could be a program A identified in a text postal codes. Another program B recognizes persons. And a program C uses medical ontology and recognizes disease symptoms. I imagine alpha as a framework, in which the programs A, B and C automatically and dynamic! – connect. Which conditions must create tungsten for dafur – and are the 100 employees to be forced? Klaus holthausen: klaus holthausen: I take the patent applications of recent years, that in the area of user interfaces already extensive experience exist. An example is the command interface of the software mathematica. A significant part of the 100 employees were allowed to be computerlinguists who teach alpha to interpret the respective input line. In any case, significantly more people are at the start than the last "google killer" named cuil. When people curate data, the whole does not give a subjective aspect? Klaus holthausen: in the time of the monastery libraries, there was not the concept of the subject. The objective instance hob god. Today we have six billion subjective residents on earth, but only one "objective" instance on the internet: wikipedia. I am glad about every person who curated data. The highlight of alpha seems to me to be that the human being becomes obsolete – if you know how a cellular machine organized itself. Which competing approaches are available – from qimaya, but for example by eyeplorer? And come out without human design? Klaus holthausen: qimaya and eyeplorer are inspired by results from the neuroscience. In qimaya concretely due to mathematical models for the understanding of the associative coarse cerebral cortex and eyeplorer by concepts from neurophysiology, such as the shape concept. Both concepts rely on self-organization and largely renounce concepts of symbolic ki. From the point of view of qimaya, the human design already prints out in the creation of the content. This content is not censored, curated, changed or decorated with metadata. The content generated by humans is incorporated in a hologram structure and can now show from every angle from its facets.

In ten years, the topic of search will be obsolete

losen these mathematical approaches at the same time also the problem of SEO spam? Klaus holthausen: no. There is only one possible way to quit SEO spam: switch off the internet. The economic importance of online marketing increases from year to year and SEO will always be a topic. The focus but will change: commercial pages will emulate content quasi to see for qimaya, eyeplorer look interesting. If a machine is entrusted with the search for answers, then must not first be the question of what truth is superior? Klaus holthausen: A pragmatic definition of truth goods: truth is the entirety of all question-answer pairs, according to which gunter jauch at "who will be a millionar?" ask. This type of fact knowledge will master alpha. Truths that are linked with action knowledge – know -ing-how instead of know-behind – remain hidden from an algorithmic machine working machine. How can true and false content be different in the network algorithmic? You have to rely on the statistics there? Klaus holthausen: there is no truth on the internet. Knowledge is interpreted information. Interpretation of knowledge requires networking of knowledge. Computers can at best mapping mind categories. Truth and reason remain reserved for the limited, accurate and lovable machine, which one "person" is called. How will internet search look in ten years – very different than today? Klaus holthausen: in ten years, the topic of search will be obsolete. Agent technology will prevail and we will automatically carry configured points of interest in our trouser pocket. I will be personal – if I did not get to death to death – have more time for the real life. I will then seek answers in beers – if there is still books and publishers. (matthias grabnerto)

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