In front of the climate summit

In front of the climate summit

Room distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 aquivalents. Numbers are in 1000 tonnes of CO2-aquivalents per plan square (0.1 degrees x 0.1 degrees). Image: wmo

The energy and climate week show: industrial countries want to spend the threshold, the threshold standing together and in the ostantarctic tauen the glaciers

The next week it is so far, then starts in copenhagen the this-year un-climate summit. For two weeks, representatives are quite a pretty much of each other negotiating the updating of the climate protection director. About 85 heads of state and government have been confused. This is unusual, because normal way is negotiated at the ministerial level. The first week is obvious the officials, the ministers then meet from monday or tuesday of the second week when the talks go to the heater phase.

So it will be this year, except that many of your superiors will be joined to the ministers. More than 85 heads of state and government have asked their coming. This underscores the special meaning and expectations that many states have at the this year’s summits. After all, two years ago, in the indonesian bali, one had understood a successor contract for the kyoto protocol in copenhagen.

US prasident barack obama wants to come to the danish capital. However, he will only participate in the conference in the first week for a day, which does not make sense. This has only a certain symbolic meaning. It seems more a kind of stopover, because the US prasident travels to oslo to pick up his nobel peace prize. Had probably looked bad if he did not look in copenhagen..

Basically, this detour is no more than a blank gesture. Obama’s office colleagues will take a week later, and his hands will be empty: by 17 percent, obama wants to lower US emissions to 2005 by 2020. The hat is a lot, but is measured by what would be necessary, pretty little. In 2005, the US has emitted 5.9 billion tonnes of CO2 from burning fossil energy carrier and cement production, as an international comparison shows. A reduction by 17 percent, they were just backed up to the 1990 level as they have 4,9 billion tons of CO2. According to the UN climate framework convention, this goal had already been achieved in 2000.

Bring back

Against this background, danemarks premier lars l√łkke rasmussen has beaten the bow to a postponement of negotiations at the summit of commonwealth states in trinidad Y tobago. With bodied words he spoke of that "copenhagen the turning point can become, which we all want. We know the problem. We know the solutions. We know what we need to do." to then talk the word to the adjournment: "A resilient agreement (A strong deal) at the level of management will serve as a clear and detailed directive for negotiators to quickly complete a legal framework."

Quoted him the news agency reuters, who claims in their report from trinidad Y tobago, most governments had abandoned the hope of being agreed in copenhagen konne a contract. The malaysia star, on the other hand, reports that 53 commonwealth states had understood themselves on the conclusion of a contract.

Emerging

The coarse thresholders also refuse to enter the queried. At the weekend, high-ranking climate diplomats from brazil, china, sudafrika, india and sudan met (as a representative of the G77) to make an appointment of a joint negotiation position. According to a report of the reuters news agency, it was agreed that in copenhagen, among other things, it is about the fact that industrialized countries provide financial resources and technological know-how to make climate change in the developmental courses of climate change. The aim of the summit must be the updating of the kyoto protocol, so more than the political explanation, which is sought by the federal government and many other western governments.

The indian newspaper the hindu writes that the ten-sided degree clarification signed by india, china, brazil and sudafrika was intended as a counterweight to a negotiating platform, which will be disreptimate of some industrialized countries this week. To prevent wool, the leaf quotes an anonymous chinese officials that the paper of industrialized countries will become the sole negotiation basis.

At the meeting in beijing, among other things, indian environment minister jairam ramesh and china’s premier wen jiabao participated. In the joint paper prepared by the chinese side, some non-negotiable points are listed. Thus, the threshold standers do not want to accept a brand binding obligation at the present time to reduce their emissions. China and brazil, however, have made commitments in recent weeks to significantly reduce the further increase in their emissions. On the other hand, the four states remedy to use climate protection to build new trade barriers. In the US, repeated the reputation has become loud to raise criminal criminals in chinese stalemports because of the emissions associated with its production.

Methan concentration rises again

According to the CO2, methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas. Although its concentration in the atmosphere is significantly lower, its share of the greenhouse effect is around 20 percent. This is meant, of course, the additional greenhouse effect caused by emissions from the industrial activities of the man, which is the natural greenhouse function of the earth’s atmosphere and the increasingly the global climate whirls.

In front of the climate summit

Positive and negative proportions of different greenhouse gases and aerosol types on the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Image: IPCC

Since the beginning of industrialization, the CH4 share of atmosphere has risen sharply. As in the case of CO2, we know from the investigation of air entries in ice drills, that the current CH4 concentrations for the last 600.000 years are one-time. The "human" methane sources are mulldeponies, leaks in demanding and transporting natural gas, rice fields, combustion of biomass.

After all, however, there was the end of the 1990er all-clearing: the CH4 concentration had been listed to continue to rise. But that’s over now. As reported in the young pattern greenhouse gas bulletin of the world meteorology organization WMO, the concentration has risen again in the second year in a row, by seven PPB (milliardstel volume shares). In 2008 she was 157 percent of 1797 ppb of 157 percent of the pre-industrial level.

In front of the climate summit

Above: methane concentration in milliardsstel volume shares. Below: quintual growth of concentration. Image: wmo

In the 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 concentration had risen by an average of 14 ppb a year, but then remained constant about ten years. The cause of the renewed increase is unknown. However, there are indications that in the arctic the outgassing of CH4 could have increased from the seabed (see china saves the world?To).

Ostantarctic loses ice cream

Bad news meanwhile come from the other end of the earth. There is the land known under a multi-kilometer thick layer of ice. Essentially, there are two rough shields that cover the antarctic. About the smaller of them, the western arctic shield, the scientists are already worried, because his stability is uncertain. After all, there is enough ice to leave the sea level worldwide by four to six meters. So could be pretty uncomfortable under circumstances, if there is something so rushed there. Since the ice bears coarsely part on rocks, which is located under the sea level, this is unfortunately by no means eliminated.

Only good that at least the ostantarctic ice sheet, in the remarkable 50 to 60 meters sea level rise "preserved" are stable. Deep temperatures made sure that the mass balance agreed. But that seems to be a conclusion. According to a time magazine report, scientists have found the university of texas in austin, that since the latest also in the ostantarctic, the glaciers shrink.

Chen jianli from the center of space research has evaluated with his colleagues the data of the grace project. These are two small satellites, which circle the earth in a short distance in succession. With the fluctuations in its course, the gravity field of the earth can be measured pretty precisely precisely, and from its changes, in turn, rucks can be pulled on the mass balance sheets of the ice sheets. Grow, gravity increases locally and vice versa.

The calculations are not quite simple, among other things, because the upswing movement of the rocky substrate also plays a role, which also changes the gravity field. During the last ice age, the antarctic ice sheets were more powerful – the sea level was 120 meters lower – and printed the substrate into the plastic mantle. Since he is relieved now, he slowly rises again. (even in scandinavia, this process is not yet completed. There, the country rises to the north by a meter per century and leave the baltic sea accordingly.To)

In any case, chen and colleagues lead to the conclusion that the ostantarctic loses 57 billion tons of ice at the time, but it may also be 52 billion more or less. The so chen, not yet dramatically a lot. What are concerned, be the trend. Unlike in gronland, however, the ice does not melt on the surface, which is still too cold in ostantarctic. Rather, the loss must be a consequence of strong release from the navigation, where the warm seawater at the glacier tongues.

The gross question will be whether this trend continues in the next few years and increasingly stimulates. However, as dramatic as in the western arctic, however, it will hardly come, because the rock among the eastern glaciers is located on the sea level and the air temperatures are still very cold there in extreme cases. However, the ostantarctic could contribute to the sea level rise to the sea of deciments per century, which is already bad enough goods.

China clout

And to the shot the good news of the week, even if it is almost two weeks old. But since she was not respected in this country, she is still ancillary: china wants to be plenty again. In the internal mongolia a photovoltaic power plant with a power of two gigawatts (GW) is to be created. The goods worldwide by far the biggest of its kind. The modules should supply the US company first solar, which were presented to the visit of US prassident barack obama in mid-november in beijing (beijing).

China is already one of the largest manufacturers of solar modules, but has installed 90 megawatts after the information from APA. By 2020, apa, an installed capacity of ten to 20 gigawatts are sought. (20 GW result in a sunshine duration of 1.800 hours a year 36 billion kilowatt hours electrical energy or approximately 0.8 to one percent of the current consumption of the people’s repubklik.) in the early year, as reported, a demand for the expansion of photototics was adopted for the first time. China is already leading worldwide in the field of direct sunrage for hot water. Ten percent of households are already exhausted with solar collectors, the chinese environmental concomitant wang tao writes.

Wang also reports that only 1.7 trillion yuan or around 170 billion euros from the four trillion yuan, which was adopted one year ago, should be put into the expansion of electricity grids. Unlike their german government colleagues, chinese guided is apparently aware that an important prerequisite for the expansion of the decentralized renewable energy carrier is a well-developed network.

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